PART I: TYPES OF MENTAL ILLNESSES
Psychological abnormalities in thought, behavior, and moods.
These symptoms are described as mental illnesses or mental disorders. It is frequently linked to distress, decreased functioning, or some sort of impairment.
Mental diseases can be caused by a variety of circumstances. Mental diseases can affect men, women, and children of all ages due to genetic, biological, and environmental causes.
It is critical to recognize and diagnose these disorders in order to provide effective rehabilitation and therapy. There have been a lot of modifications in the recognition of mental diseases over the years as clinical psychiatry has progressed.
TYPES OF MENTAL ILLNESS CLASSIFICATION
The many types of mental diseases have experienced a number of alterations in terms of definitions and classifications.
Currently, there are two recognized classification systems for mental health disorders:
- One is based on ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and Behavioral Disorders,
- The other is based on DSM-5.
Since 1949, the WHO’s International Classification of Diseases has released this guidebook. The other is the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which is in its fourth and most recent version (APA).
This manual has been in print since 1952 and is mainly used in the United States. The United Kingdom and the rest of Europe utilize the previous ICD classification system.
Both of these syndrome-based classifications list a variety of mental health issues; the DSM IV, for example, contains about 300 mental disorders.
In addition, the ICD-10 has divided childhood disorders into two categories:
- Disorders of psychological development of children’s behavioral and emotional issues (F8089)
- and Behavioral and Emotional Disorder with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence (F9098).
In Axis I, Disruptive Behavior Disorder, Anxiety disorders of childhood or adolescence, eating disorders, tic disorders, and elimination disorders, and in Axis II, Pervasive developmental disorders, the DSM IV includes pediatric disorders.
The following is a list of some of the most prevalent mental disorders in adults and children, as well as their definitions.
- Mental Illnesses List
- Disorders of Anxiety
- Childhood Illnesses
- Disorders of the Mind
- Dissociative Disorders (Dissociative Identity Disorders)
- Eating Illnesses
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome
- Mood Disturbances
- Organic Mental Illnesses
- Disorders of Personality
- Sexual Disturbances
- Disorders of Sleeping
Other Mental Health Issues
Disorders of Anxiety
Anxiety disorders impact roughly 40 million persons in the United States alone, and they can affect anyone, whether adults or children. Worry disorders, unlike occasional bouts of anxiety, are characterized by long periods of anxiety, usually six months or more.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is characterized by persistent, excessive, and illogical worry over a variety of topics, including family, money, relationships, and work problems.
Some of the usual symptoms of this mental disease are fatigue, recurring headaches, muscle aches, numbness in the hands and feet, rashes, hot flashes, and an inability to control anxiety.
Panic disorders are a type of anxiety disorder that affects both adults and children, and can cause recurrent panic attacks. The majority of these attacks happen out of nowhere and without notice.
Anxiety, rapid heartbeat, dizziness, trembling, and a feeling of overwhelming, uncontrollable terror are all common symptoms.
Phobia is a feeling of strong fear of a single thing that may or may not constitute a harm to the person experiencing the fear. It is derived from the Greek term Phobos.
This unreasonable dread might be triggered by being close to the phobic stimulus. Specific phobias include arachnophobia (fear of spiders), aviophobia (fear of flying), and cynophobia (fear of dogs).
Social Anxiety Disorder (also known as social phobia) is a type of anxiety disorder in which a person feels very self-conscious and worried when they are in a social situation. He or she may blush, tremble, sweat heavily, or find it difficult to converse with others.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurring and typically undesirable feelings, ideas, or obsessions. The constant obsession with a disturbing idea or picture, as well as the need to perform a specific behavior, can make a person uneasy and exhausted.
Obsessive compulsive behavior can involve things like repeatedly washing hands to eradicate infection-carrying germs or double-checking items like shutting the door or turning out the lights.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can be caused by a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, hostage situation, abuse, bullying, or rape. The individual is depressed, anxious, and angry.
Flashbacks to the distressing experience can aggravate the distress even more.
There are a variety of juvenile problems, just as there are a variety of adult mental disorders.
According to child psychiatry research, child psychology must be studied differently from adult psychology. This is because a child’s emotional and other development is reliant on his or her parents and caretakers.
Furthermore, children’s language are less expressive, making illnesses more difficult to detect.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD/ADD) is one of the most common juvenile disorders, characterized by hyperactive behavior, difficulties paying attention, and staying focused.
The child is easily distracted, misses out on things, jumps from one activity to the next, is always moving, talks nonstop, and rarely listens when spoken to.
Autism (Autism): Autism, also known as autistic disorder, is a developmental disease characterized by restricted social communication and repetitive behavior in children.
Symptoms usually appear in children as early as preschool. Autism in babies can be identified by developmental impairments such as no babbling at twelve months of age or no words said by eighteen months, as well as a loss of language or social skills.
Autism can be detected in preschoolers by indicators such as lack of physical contact, avoidance of eye contact, and failure to communicate with others.
Certain behaviors, such as stacking cups or arranging items in a row, may be repeated by the youngster. He or she may follow particular rituals and be obsessed with lights and moving items.
Conduct disorder in children is defined as a pattern of repeated and persistent rule violations along with defiance of socially acceptable behavior. Aggression toward people, animal abuse, stealing, fighting, property destruction, and rule infractions at school and at home are all examples of frequent behavior.
Encopresis is the voluntary soiling of the garments as a result of a stool withholding. Stool that has accumulated in the colon might leak out and discolor clothing.
This is most common among toilet-trained toddlers over the age of four. Encopresis is a symptom of constipation or a condition induced by retaining the feces owing to psychological or neurological conditions.
Enuresis, often known as bed wetting, is the inability to regulate one’s urinating, particularly when sleeping. Diurnal enuresis (daytime incontinence), nocturnal enuresis (nighttime incontinence), and mixed enuresis are the three forms of enuresis.
While primary enuresis refers to children who have not been toilet trained, secondary enuresis refers to children who have been toilet trained but are experiencing incontinence as a result of a stressful environment. To be diagnosed with enuresis, the conduct must be seen twice for at least three weeks.
The phrase “learning conditions” refers to a broad spectrum of disorders involving learning difficulties. These diseases have an impact on how a person listens, communicates, understands, and applies what they’ve learned.
Different skill sets are used to categorize learning problems.
These are some of them:
- In reading impairments (dyslexia)
- Math learning disabilities (dyscalculia)
- Disabilities in writing learning (dysgraphia)
- Language learning impairments (aphasia/dysphasia)
- Disabilities in motor skills learning (dyspraxia)
- Visual perception Disorder
- APD is an audio processing disorder.
Mental Retardation (MR) is a term used to describe a person who Mental retardation, often known as intellectual disability. It is a developmental disorder marked by below-average intellectual functioning and adaptive skills (skills needed for everyday life like learning language, social skills and work related skills).
Frequently diagnosed in youngsters under the age of eighteen.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is a mental illness characterized by animosity and defiance toward authority figures. Extreme anger, reluctance to follow rules, speaking nasty things, and mean and spiteful behavior in children are all common indicators of the illness.
Temper tantrums and fury outbursts may be frequent and inconsolable in the child.
Pica Disorder is a condition that occurs when a youngster eats items such as clay, mud, chalk, or sand. This is particularly true if the child does so for more than a month.
Some of these compounds, such as lead in paint or hairballs that can induce intestinal blockage, can be harmful. This illness in children can be triggered by nutritional inadequacies such as an iron deficiency, acquired taste, or emotional stressors such as parental neglect, family troubles, and poverty.
Reactive Attachment Disorder is an uncommon syndrome that can have catastrophic consequences when a kid fails to form attachments to caregivers or parents as a result of abuse or neglect. Orphaned children may also be affected by this issue.
Withdrawal from others might be caused by a lack of basic love and nurturing. The youngster is typically unresponsive to others, has no desire to play with toys or other children, and prefers to be alone.
Symptoms such as aggressive behavior, evident awkwardness, and discomfort can be seen in older children.
Rett’s Disorder: Rett’s illness is a neurodevelopmental disorder that only affects females. It is characterized by normal growth in the first six months of a baby’s life, followed by a slowdown of development.
Physical signs include slow head growth, walking difficulties, hand wringing, convulsions, and loss of muscular tone. Language and social abilities may deteriorate as a result of the developmental delay.
Rumination Condition is an eating disorder in children characterized by the regurgitation and re-chewing of undigested food on a regular basis. This is more common in infants older than three months, and it occurs less frequently in younger children and teenagers.
Bad breath, stomach discomfort, chapped lips, and weight loss in babies are common symptoms of this condition.
Selective Mutism is a childhood psychological illness in which a child who can communicate refrains from doing so in social situations or at school with strangers. This type of acute social phobia is particularly common in children under the age of five.
Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) in children is defined as a worry or anxiety over being separated from their parents and their home. The possibility of being removed from the primary caregiver and familiar settings may cause undue discomfort and worry in the kid.
They may refuse to attend school, have trouble sleeping, and have nightmares about being separated. In rare situations, the youngster may claim to be suffering from fictitious diseases such as headaches and fever.
Stereotypic Movement Condition (SMD) is a childhood mental disorder characterized by repetitive behaviors such as hand waving, self-biting, nail biting, and body rocking. The behavior frequently has a negative influence on the child’s day-to-day existence and may even result in bodily harm.
Tic disorder is characterized by fast, generally painless movements or sounds. Motor and verbal tics are the two types of tics.
Basic tics like eye blinking or head jerks can be as simple as biting, banging, or making obscene motions, while complicated tics like biting, banging, and making obscene gestures can be more complex.
Similarly, vocal tics can range from meaningless sounds to more intricate vocal tics such as coprolalia, which involves making obscene motions and sounds.
Tourette’s disorder is a more sophisticated form of tic condition that occurs when both motor and vocal tics are present.
Disorders of the Mind
Learning, memory, problem solving, and perception are all affected by cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairments do not only affect the elderly, contrary to popular belief.
Cognitive problems such as delirium and dementia can affect people of all ages. It might be caused by drug or alcohol misuse, a medical problem, or a mix of the two.
Delirium is a mental disease defined by a lack of understanding of the circumstances and a disruption of the individual’s consciousness. Symptoms such as aimlessness, unpredictable conduct, and actions may be present.
There could be a shift in your sleep-wake cycle. Furthermore, the person’s mental process is chaotic, and his or her speech, memory, and focus may be compromised.
Dementia is an illness defined by the loss of a person’s memory as a result of specific events such as brain trauma or stroke. This mental illness can also be caused by diseases like Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.
Dementia of the Alzheimer’s type or Dementia related to HIV is the name given to such a condition.
Dissociative Disorders (Dissociative Identity Disorders)
Dissociative disorder is characterized by a disruption or complete collapse of a person’s memory, perception, and awareness. A person’s thoughts, feelings, and sensations become separated from one another.
Dissociative disorder, which can range from amnesia to multiple personality disorder, is frequently induced by psychological trauma, particularly throughout childhood and adolescence.
Is there a sense of being cut off from oneself and seeing one’s own activities from afar with Depersonalization Disorder?
Then it’s possible that you’re suffering from depersonalization disorder. These times of separation can be recurring and long-lasting, resulting in a person’s dysfunction and distress.
Emotional stress, sleep deprivation, and alcohol usage can all cause a random episode of this dissociation in otherwise healthy people. If you have persistent and recurrent occurrences of the same, it could be an indication of a disease.
Dissociative amnesia is characterized by a loss of memory for a long period of time or the inability to recall important personal information. This can be triggered by a single experience of acute stress, such as an accident.
Dissociative fugue is a type of dissociative illness in which a person creates a new identity to replace the doubt about their true identity caused by a single traumatic incident. Because the person is unable to recall the past, he or she becomes completely absorbed in the new identity while losing all memories of the previous personality.
Dissociative identity disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder): Also known as Multiple Personality Disorder, dissociative identity disorder is defined by a person’s inability to remember the memories of two or more different identities or personalities.
At different times, different personalities may exert control over thoughts and actions. There is a lot of depersonalization and disconnection from the environment.
NOS (Not Otherwise Specified) dissociative disorder: Aside from these sorts of dissociative behavior, a person may experience mood swings, phobias, substance misuse, suicidal tendencies, and other health issues that are linked to dissociative disorder in some manner.
Eating disorders, which are defined as either excessive or excessively restricted food consumption, can be exceedingly harmful to a person’s health. Food and health preoccupations are so intense that a person has little time to think about anything else.
Anorexia Nervosa is a widespread eating disorder that affects many young men and women. It is characterized by an unreasonable fear of gaining weight and a highly restricted diet.
These dietary limits result in significant weight loss as well as other metabolic and hormonal changes. The person has a bad self-image, exercises excessively, and is continuously thinking about food.
The symptoms of this condition include constipation, menstruation abnormalities, abdominal pain, low blood pressure, and dehydration. Anorexia can result in multi-organ failure and brain damage in severe circumstances.
Bulimia Nervosa is characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating, followed by feelings of guilt and compensatory behaviors such as forced vomiting and excessive exercise. Swollen glands, an inflamed throat, acid reflux, severe dehydration, and an electrolyte imbalance are all common symptoms of this illness.
Binge Eating Disorder is a condition in which a person loses control of their eating. Obesity, as well as linked disorders such as cardiovascular issues, are major side effects of binge eating.
Feelings of shame and depression arise as a result of overeating. This can be followed up with even more eating.
Impulse control disorder.
It is a psychological condition in which a person is unable to resist the desire or temptation to do something that could hurt him or her or others. There are several varieties of impulse control behavior listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) manual, the most common of which are:
- Intermittent Explosive Disorder, often known as IED, is characterized by severe outbursts of fury in response to real or perceived provocation. This can lead to aggressive behavior such as property destruction or violence.
- Kleptomania is the irrational desire to steal something without regard for its monetary value or utility. Stealing is done for the pleasure and satisfaction of perpetrating the theft.
- Pathological gambling, also known as problem gambling, is defined as the need to gamble while being aware of the negative consequences. This irrepressible desire to gamble can have serious consequences in a person’s life, including financial difficulties, disruption of family life, and other issues.
- Pyromania is an impulse control condition in which a person has an irrepressible desire to start a fire. This is frequently done for no reason other than the pleasure of igniting fire.
- Trichotillomania is a condition characterized by an excessive need to pluck one’s hair. It can cause substantial hair loss, particularly around the brows, head, eyelashes, and hands.
Internet addiction, dermatillomania (skin plucking), onchycophagia (nail biting), and obsessive shopping are examples of unspecified impulse control problems.
Mood disorders are among the most frequent mental illnesses afflicting people all over the world. These disorders indicate a significant shift in a person’s mood.
Depression and bipolar disorder are two emotionally devastating mental illnesses that can have a significant impact on a person’s life, while dysthymic disorder and cyclothymic disorder are more moderate mood disorders.
Major depression, also known as clinical depression or unipolar depression, is a mood illness in which a person has severely low self-esteem and no interest in anything. It can have an impact on a person’s daily life.
Some of the symptoms of this disease include feelings of hopelessness, a lack of self-worth, an excessive amount of guilt, and obsessive thinking. In severe circumstances, the individual may experience insomnia, memory loss, delusions, and suicidal thoughts.
Manic Depression or Manic Depressive Sickness: Bipolar disorder is often known as manic depression or manic depressive illness. Mood fluctuations are common in those who have bipolar disorder.
Mania is often followed by sadness after a frenetic stage of mania in which a person appears energized and eager. When a person is experiencing a manic episode, he or she may feel tremendously cheerful or irritated and jumpy.
They may speak quickly, be easily sidetracked, and leap from one thought to the next. In contrast, a depressive episode is marked by protracted periods of “feeling low,” as well as exhaustion, inability to concentrate, and behavioral changes.
Suicide may be a constant thought for the individual.
Dysthymic Disorder is a type of mood depression that isn’t severe enough to be categorized as serious depression. A person suffering from this condition has been plagued by a depressive sensation for more than two years and frequently exhibits symptoms such as poor appetite, low self-esteem, difficulty concentrating, and insomnia.
Cyclothymic Disorder: Cyclothymic illness is a lesser type of severe bipolar disorder that causes minor mania and depression episodes. Alternate periods of euphoria and despair over a two-year period with less than two symptom-free months are some of the common signs of cyclothymic disorder.
The depression phase frequently lasts longer than the mania phase.
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): Also known as the winter or summer blues, seasonal affective condition is a mood disorder in which people’s moods alter as the seasons change.
Organic Mental Illnesses
Physical alterations that influence the brain are the direct cause of many illnesses. In other words, a variety of diseases and disorders can influence or harm the brain, resulting in mental impairment.
Physical problems that can rise to mental ailments are referred to as “psychiatric disorders.” In many circumstances, however, distinguishing between the two is very difficult.
As a result, this word is no longer generally used. Some of the mental diseases that are classified as organic brain disorder/organic brain disease/organic brain syndrome are listed below:
- Huntington disease is a hereditary brain disease that results in the progressive disintegration of nerve cells in the brain, resulting in functional, cognitive, and behavioral issues.
- Multiple sclerosis is a degenerative condition in which the myelin sheath surrounding the nerve cells is affected, delaying or blocking nerve signals. The central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) is affected, resulting in a wide spectrum of physical and mental symptoms.
- Alzheimer’s disease is defined by the deterioration and death of brain cells, reducing mental function. It is one of the most common causes of dementia (the loss of brain function caused by specific disorders).
- Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a central nervous system degenerative condition. The illness impairs the ability of nerve cells to relay messages, resulting in tremors and perhaps paralysis.
There are a number of cardiovascular conditions that can impair brain function and contribute to mental problems. Stroke, cardiac arrhythmias, heart infections, and so forth are among them.
Trauma can cause mental illnesses in some people. A head injury, for example, might impact the brain and cause damage to the organ, resulting in mental illnesses.
Cancer, thyroid disorders, liver and kidney diseases, infections (like septicemia), certain vitamin deficiencies (like B12), and drug and alcohol-related – intoxication, drug and alcohol withdrawal symptoms, and so on – are all medical ailments that can influence brain functioning.